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An analysis of the brains of several types of primates shows that humans have brain cells that are specific to our species, according to neuroscientists from Yale University.

What to Know

  • The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is a brain region unique to primates and is essential for higher-order cognition.

  • New findings show that there are 109 shared primate cell types in the dlPFC. Five of those cell types include a type of microglia, or brain-specific immune cell, that is present only in humans, and a second type that is shared only by humans and chimpanzees.

  • The human-specific microglia type exists throughout development and adulthood, cheapest cialis soft coupon pharmacy suggesting that the cells play a role in maintenance of the brain rather than combating disease.

  • Humans were also found to have the gene FOXP2, variants of which have been linked to verbal dyspraxia and also neuropsychiatric diseases, such as autism, schizophrenia, and epilepsy.

  • Compared to other primate species, humans live in a very different environment and have a unique lifestyle; glia cells, including microglia, are very sensitive to these differences, so the type of microglia found in the human brain might represent an immune response to the environment.

This is a summary of the article, “What Makes the Human Brain Different? Yale Study Reveals Clues,” published by the journal Science on August 25, 2022. The full article can be found on

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